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Fondly, Pennsylvania

Fondly, Pennsylvania is HSP's main blog.  Here you will find posts on our latest projects and newest discoveries, as well articles on interesting bits of local history reflected in our collection.  Whether you are doing research or just curious to know more about the behind-the-scenes work that goes on at HSP, please read, explore, and join the conversation!

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George F. Parry's Civil War Diaries: August 1864

Hello all! Thanks for coming back to our blog for more transcriptions from the George F. Parry Civil War diaries (George F. Parry family volumes, Collection 3694). If you're just joining us, in 2012 HSP acquired the diaries of Bucks County resident and Civil War veterinary surgeon George F. Parry. In that collection are three diaries he kept during the Civil War dating from 1863 to 1865, when he served with the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry. In celebration of Parry's work and the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, I'm providing monthly posts on Fondly, PA of transcripts of entries from his diaries.

To see other posts in the series, check out the links over on the right-hand side of this page.  Clicking on the diary images will take you to our Digital Librarywhere you can examine the volumes page by page, along with other digitized items from the Parry collection.

*****

August 1864 was both routine and probably melancholy for Parry. The fighting in and around Atlanta, Georgia, of the previous month had slowed down a little (or at least he didn’t note seeing much action), but it didn’t stop. During the month Parry wrote about a little about everything, from receiving items from home to condemning the regiment's animals to the deaths of a number of soldiers. Parry's regiment didn’t move drastically over the course of August 1864, though Parry mentioned late in the month that his regiment had detached from a brigade and made camp elsewhere.


Notes about the transcriptions: I've kept the pattern of Parry's writings as close as formatting here will allow, including his line breaks and spacing. My own additional or clarifying notes will be in brackets [ ]. Any grammatical hiccups that aren’t noted as such are Parry's own.


*****

Monday, August 1
Rainy & Hot. Wagon train came
up and brought Rations for Men
and Horses. Received three Letters
from Home[,] one from J. V. Taylor[,]
also four newspapers. Drew
five days Rations. Moved at
Dusk about five miles[.] men
dismounted and ordered to fight
on foot. Horses left back some
six miles.     Sent letter Home.

*****

Friday, August 12
Condemned 15 Horses[,] turned lose[sic]
Killed 2 Horses. [Yancy?] rode out
in afternoon with Capt. Hilbury[,] found
my Rebel Horse with [illegible] 5th Mich.
Infantry. got him after much
Work.   Received one Hat and
Two Newspapers from Home
also some other things. ----

*****

Sunday, August 14
Sent a Letter Home[.] a Warm
Day and some rain.
                          Drew rations
For 5 days.
                          Buried Bob.
Bridgen  E Co.
                          Rode out in the Eve.
with Capt. Newcomer, White & Harthranft[sic]
to view Atlanta – on fire from our
shells --- a grand sight.

*****

Monday, August 22
My Birthday.       26 years old
                        Traded my Horse
Rosencrans off four a sorrell one[.]
Took dinner with Dr. Able and
Wm. Yeller.  Pay time.
Rode out with them after Dinner
to Pine Mt. and took a view of the
Country.      Rec'd a Letter from Mo-
ther[.]        Sent a letter Home.

*****

Tuesday, August 23
Up a light and joined the command
at or near Atlanta. Bad news[:] the
Regiment lost 52 men and Capt.
Taylor White Thompson and
Lieut. Hermens. All good men. the
4th Regulars lost also [Heany?]. this
Raid destroyed the Rail Road
between Atlanta and Macon[,]
also burnt one town.
                     Rec'd Papers from Home[.]
Dr. Able dined with me.

*****

Saturday, August 27
Our Regiment detached from the
Brigade[,] moved camp to near
Station.
                Rec'd two letters from Home
and $300[,] also two Papers
                Rec'd a Letter from
Russell Thayer in regard to
Vet. Surgeon Rank.

*****

Visiting Philadelphia’s Historic Italian Market

As this blog series, A Philly Foodie Explores Local History, approaches the halfway point in its two-month journey in food history, I think it's about time that we visit one of Philadelphia’s best-known historic food landmarks-- the 9th Street Italian Market!  With early beginnings in the 1880s when Italian immigrants began to settle in a neighborhood South of the original city center, the Philadelphia Italian Market is a collection of specialty food shops and outdoor vendors concentrated around 9th and Christian Streets.  Inspired by historic photographs and local family recipes in our archives here at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, I decided to connect with this historic Philly foodie neighborhood by shopping for fresh ingredients at the Italian Market and cooking a dish from Celeste Morello’s The Philadelphia Italian Market Cookbook: The Tastes of South 9th Street.  Experience the market with me as you read about my multi-layered culinary adventure below and view additional pictures in the photo album to the right!

Not-knowing what to expect when I went searching for material on the Italian Market in our archives, I was blown away when I happened to stumble upon the Penrose Collection of early and late 20th century photographs of businesses along 9th Street.  In particular, the picture below of Tony Anastasio in front of his produce business really caught my eye.  The best way I can describe this photo is that it carries a sense of weight with it-- of accomplishment and hard work.  Started in 1938, Anastasio Produce has been in business over 75 years.

Tony Anastasio in front of Tony Anastasio Produce, as photographed by Joseph V. Labolito, in 1991. Check out the photo album in the top right corner to see other historic pictures of the Italian Market!


I also came across a fabulous collection of family recipes from shop owners and residents in the South Philadelphia neighborhood compiled alongside a history of the Italian Market in the Historical Society's copy of Celeste Morello's The Philadelphia Italian Market Cookbook: The Tastes of South 9th Street.  After encountering a cheesesteak recipe from the founder of Geno’s Steaks, Joseph Vento, and reading a recipe for “Sicilian Blood Orange Salad” that was humorously connected to local accounts of Sylvester Stalone running through the market in Rocky movie scenes, I decided that it was only fitting to test out one of these historic recipes myself!  To take advantage of all the seasonal produce available at the Italian Market, I decided upon “John & Marie LaTerza’s Recipe for “Jumbot.””  Below is the recipe and author’s description directly from the cookbook:

 


Shopping list in hand and eager to get cooking, I headed to the market.  Walking up and down 9th Street, I spent most of my time admiring the fresh produce belonging to street vendors lining the sidewalk and talking with them as I made notes of what items to purchase.  Shops and vendors at the Italian Market are well-known for selling produce at some of the most affordable rates in the area and my ingredient hunt turned up a number of good finds.  My prized steal-of-a-deal was spending only a $1 for two large, vibrant eggplants.  Since eggplant is in prime season now, vendors were practically giving them away by the box.  Perhaps it was my inner foodie or former experience working a farm stand that made me so excited about the eggplant-- I’m sure I told at least three people about it that day!

I also visited Anastasio Produce for my first time and left the shop with a smile after stopping in search of mushrooms.  Although the store mainly sells to restaurants in the area, the warehouse is open to the public and when I asked about mushrooms, one of the gentlemen organizing morning deliveries was happy to stop his work to help me.  After deciding which mushrooms would be the best fit for the dish I was making, he brought out a box of beautiful Portobellos for me to choose from.

Below is a picture of one of the outdoor produce stands along 9th street. Underneath the picture is a list of the items I purchased and their prices.  The grand total was $18, not bad!

Just as you travel to a museum or historic landmark to engage with history in a memorable way rather then remember every knitty-gritty historical fact related to your area of interest, my exploration of the Philadelphia Italian Market was centered around experiencing history rather then analyzing it.  As you might have guessed, I came away from this journey focused not just on the product of my efforts in the kitchen, but more-so on the multi-layered experience of 9th Street that I encountered through historic photographs and family recipes and through my conversations with vendors and shop keepers in my hunt for cooking ingredients.  Even though John & Marie LaTerza’s Jumbot has secured a spot within my personal collection of recipes, what I will cherish even more from this culinary experience is the feeling of personally connecting to bits and pieces of history in this iconic food-filled neighborhood.

 

Every Picture Tells a Story; Some Speak to History

My task as a volunteer in digital collections is to add metadata to images posted in “Questions of the Week.” As a historian by training, my metadata interests lean toward the descriptive. What was the purpose of this photograph showing the Honorable Raymond Pace Alexander (1898-1974) and his wife Dr. Sadie Tanner Mosell Alexander (1898-1989), flanking business and civic leader Albert M. Greenfield (1887-1967)? While I could not identify the event, I did uncover what was probably one of the earliest associations of Alexander and Greenfield. Their interaction, however, was merely a footnote to a remarkable story about the first low income housing project in Philadelphia to be developed privately by an African American couple.

In 1939, Pearl and Benjamin Mason lived with their two children in a tiny house with no bathroom in South Philadelphia. For the past four years, this African American family survived on a weekly allowance of $11.80, afforded through the federal government’s relief program. At one time a garage attendant, Benjamin had been unemployed for seven years. On March 24, 1939, the Masons’ lives changed dramatically when a horse named Workman won the Grand National in Liverpool, England—a race that determined the winners of the widely popular Irish Sweepstakes. The Masons held one of the winning sweepstake tickets, turning their $2.50 investment into a $150,000 windfall.

The Masons received national media attention not just for winning, but for how they spent their winnings. First, they reimbursed the Department of Welfare $2,133.90, the amount they had received on relief. They paid off other debts and spent another $3,000 on a house in North Philadelphia for their family and a car. Acting on the advice of Raymond Pace Alexander, the Masons spent the remaining $90,000 to buy and renovate a block of 28 dilapidated houses at 20th and Lombard streets. At that time, Alexander was one of only thirteen blacks practicing law in Philadelphia. He specialized in desegregation cases. The property the Masons purchased bordered on the Rittenhouse Square vicinity, which even then was considered a “ritzy and exclusive white section” of the city. According to a December 1939 article in the Afro-American, the real estate concern of Albert Greenfield and Company was also interested in the transaction.

The Masons stipulated that at least 75% of the work be done by “colored workmen.” The project nearly died during construction when a bank sought to renege on its financing promise. According to a 1992 news article, Alexander “saved the day by putting up his property to guarantee a second loan.” Named after the Masons’ daughter, Frances Plaza opened in 1941 offering 50 apartments for rent to low-income black families along with an open courtyard and playground. Rents ranged from $30 to $39. In one year, Frances Plaza was fully occupied with a long waiting list. The Masons responded in a most unbusinesslike fashion and cut rents by 10 percent.

The Masons sold Frances Plaza to an investor in 1958. In its stead today are the Waverly Court Apartments. Other than their affiliation with the Holy Trinity Baptist Church on Bainbridge Street, little else is known of what became of Pearl (born circa 1900 in North Carolina), her husband Benjamin (born circa 1897 in South Carolina) and their son Benjamin Jr. Their daughter Frances studied music at Howard University in Washington and became a singer.

A Foodie’s Unconventional History of Advertising

As we were preparing for the HSP Martha Washington Potluck a few weeks ago, Director of Conservation Tara O’Brien and I were brainstorming about what cookware items would have commonly existed in early American kitchens.  When one of our reference librarians, Ron Medford, overheard our conversation, he mentioned that he knew of some old cookware catalogs... in box TQ.40.  Intrigued by Ron’s coincidental knowledge of some forgotten material that might answer our questions, Tara and I immediately went on a hunt for it in our archives.  What we found in mysterious box TQ.40 was a collection hardware, home furnishing, and cookware catalogs and magazines that would make any historian smile because some bit of social and cultural history is waiting to be unpacked on nearly every page.  I am extremely excited to share three items with you: an 1882 merchant catalog from the Lancaster homegoods company Steinman & Co as well as an 1882 magazine and 1977 catalog from the Philadelphia department store Strawbridge & Clothier.  While these catalogs and magazines don't exactly lay out an entire history of American cookware in their pages, an examination of their representations of cookware and cooking reveal historic differences in advertising that stand in stark contrast to modern ads today.  Please reference the photo album in the top right hand corner of this blog post as you read!

Steinman & Co. Illustrative & Descriptive Catalogue of Hardware, 1882

Flipping through this catalog for the first time, I was so captivated by the detailed pictures and descriptions of cookware that it took me a few minutes to see another jarring difference between this 19th century advertising and its modern counterparts-- there are no prices to be found anywhere on the pages!  This was very odd to me, how could you expect a customer to purchase an item, if they don’t know the price?  The answer slowly started becoming clearer to me while I was looked at the illustration of some spoons below:

View a larger version of this image in the photo album at the top right corner of this blog post.

If you look closely at this picture, you’ll see that the spoons are hand-drawn and not photographs.  Although I was originally struck by the level of detail in the pictures, I hadn’t quite picked up on the fact that they were originally hand-drawn images that were then reprinted in mass for the booklets.  Considering the amount of effort and attention that was paid to such a simple thing as spoons in this catalog, I became aware that creating this booklet full of thousands of items would have been a massive and expensive undertaking.  This would explain why Steinman & Co. went to such lengths to recreate the items in their stocks without listing prices.  Instead of continually bearing the cost of printing updated copies of the catalog with new items, it would have been much more practical and efficient to print one guide of items without prices which customers could use as reference over time to get an idea of what the company had to offer.  Searching for concrete evidence in the pages of the book that would confirm my theory, I stumbled across an introduction that I had initially missed:

“This Catalogue is designed to assist merchants... (as) permanent reference and contains something of interest to every person.  An effort has been made both by cuts and description, to give a clear idea of the most Salable Standard Goods and sizes in each department.  It does not include all in stock, nor will that ever be possible, as new goods appear almost daily.  It would also be impossible with so large a variety and the frequent changes, to keep in print our actual selling prices... we can assure you that our Prices are right...” 

Although this introduction confirms my theory as to why the booklet does not contain prices, it ends up raising more questions.  If the book is designed for merchants, then which stores were selling Steinman & Co. products?  When a prospective buyer contacted the company for pricing did they have authority to negotiate prices?  Were merchants from Philadelphia buying goods from this Lancaster company at wholesale prices and then selling them at a profit in nearby city stores?  What kind of profits were they making?  Were the Steinman & Co. catalogs sold to merchants or were they given away freely to attract business?


Strawbridge & Clothier’s Quarterly, Spring 1888

For those of you who might be unfamiliar with Strawbridge & Clothier, the department store is a giant in Philadelphia history that was founded by Quaker businessmen in 1868 and grew into a successful regional chain of stores over the following hundred years.  As you can see from the cover above, Strawbridge & Clothier Quarterly labels itself as a magazine and is different from the Steinman & Co. catalog as well as the department store catalogs that we are familiar with today.  This 1888 Spring issue, in particular, contains a whole variety of different articles ranging from short stories, fashion gossip, how to polish wood,  and notes on nursing in addition to advertisements of desirable clothing and house materials for sale.  Although the majority of the magazine is not focused on cooking or cookware, my favorite article is “THE KITCHEN,” which you can see below:

Written by Juliet Corson, who was well-known in the 19th century for her writing on affordable cooking, “THE KITCHEN” is a collection of recipes and tips for using fresh Spring ingredients on a budget.  I suspect that some of the recipes, such as “Sago and Orange Soup” and “Creole Tomatoes,” would have been novel for many readers because they include imported ingredients like sago (a type of flour) and rice that could have only been grown in international climates.  Corson seems to acknowlede the novelty of these recipes, when she writes: “... our menu will prove interesting to all our readers...”  In addition to the recipes, the article also contains tips on determining the freshness of eggs, described by Corson as “that daintiest of all spring dainties.”  I encourage you to experiment in your own kitchen and try out Corson's egg test by weight:

“Dissolve in a pint of cold water an ounce and a half of salt (about a tablespoonful) and float the egg to be tested in the solution.  A perfectly fresh egg will sink to the bottom; and according to age, the eggs will rise in the water, a portion protruding above the surface when the egg is no longer prime for boiling, although it might be quite good for other methods of cookery” (Corson, 39).  


Strawbridge & Clothier Home News & Savings, Spring 1977

Strawbridge & Clothier reached the height of its popularity in the 1980s and the image above is the cover of a 1977 company catalog.  As you would expect, nearly a century-worth of advancements in technology make the advertisements in this catalog drastically different from the 1888 magazine.  This is clear in the covers themselves, the older being black-and-white and originally hand-drawn while the second is a colored photograph.  Changes in technology are obviously reflected in the cookware being  advertised in the 1977 catalog as well.

This exploration of historic cookware catalogs and department store magazines not only gives us a glimpse into the local business history of Steinman & Co. and Strawbridge & Clothier, but also highlights the changing role of technology in American ads over the last century.  Compared to today, when 3D online images and large department store chains make merchandise accessible, the 19th century catalogs and magazines discussed above seem antiquated.  At the same time, it also seems that something special is lost from the hand-drawn images that give attention to the smallest of products.  This leaves me with a question I have to ask:  what do you think of these old catalogs and magazines in comparison to modern advertisements today?  


Tell me what you think! Has something been lost from these historic cookware ads in modern advertising?

Learn more about this blog series, A Philly Foodie Explores Local History

Of Stamps and Taxes

To continue the theme of curiosities or treasures that lie hidden in the pages of the Bank of North America Collection, I am currently performing conservation treatment on a volume that includes several examples of revenue stamps from the years of, and surrounding the American Civil War (1861–1865).  The ledger, dating from January of 1855 to January of 1872, is a book of dividends from the Lexington branch of the Northern Bank of Kentucky (Collection 1543, volume 617).  There are actually a number of ledgers titled after other financial institutions within the collection, and I gleaned from the finding aid that these were banks in which the B.N.A. had made considerable investments.
 
At first glance, I assumed these stamps were of the postal variety – an easy mistake when you are of the mind that all official stamps are postal in flavor.  Still, finding the stamps made for an especially exciting discovery.  I had recently been to the National Postal Museum at the Smithsonian in D.C. where I learned that the first United States postage stamps had been issued in 1847; thus any stamps in this volume would fall quite early on in the philatelic history of our nation.
 
Stamps, photographed in situ, page 86.
 
That the stamps were pasted into a bank ledger and not on an envelope or letter was, naturally, a bit mysterious, but it was still conceivable to me that postage stamps might have at some point been used as a sort of currency.  This casual assumption prevailed as I set about cleaning and mending the pages, until I clapped eyes on a stamp marked with the amount of two dollars – a large denomination for a postage stamp even by today’s standards, let alone a century and a half ago.  It was at this point that I began to question the postal-specific designation of the stamps before me.
 
Two-dollar revenue stamp (Mortgage), page 118.
 
Behold the fine print: United States Internal Revenue – and as History would have it, an early manifestation of the I.R.S.  Postage stamps these were not. These were something else entirely.
 
In 1862, the United States government of the then divided nation needed a way of raising funds for the costly war with the South.  The Revenue Act of 1862 sought to rectify this discretionary discrepancy with the implementation of several new taxes, and the creation of a new government office to oversee their collection.  Taxes were introduced on items as diverse as playing cards, photographs, tobacco, and alcohol, and also on legal documents and financial transactions.  Like postage stamps, revenue stamps could be purchased in advance and affixed to taxable items to show that the tax had in fact been paid.  In the case of legal or financial documents, affixing a stamp was as much a part of completing the paperwork as signing on the dotted line.
 

Revenue stamps: Certificate, Protest, and Express; page 88.
 
Revenue stamps: Certificate, Bill of Lading, Express, and U.S. Inter. Rev.; page 92.
 
The complexity of this system of taxation is further evidenced by the sheer variety of revenue stamps found in this single volume.  On the surface they are all quite similar – each bearing the face of George Washington, and sharing the same general format familiar to even the most reluctant of philatelists.  Reading the small print, however, it is clear that there were different stamps made for each specific tax, and of these, several denominations within each category.  Flipping through, I found over 15 different designations, among them Foreign Exchange, Bill of Lading, Contract, Surety Bond, Inland Exchange, Mortgage, Life Insurance, Power of Attorney, and Conveyance.
 
Revenue stamps: stamped cancelations; page 121.  
 
Also like their postal counterparts, revenue stamps were usually canceled so that a single stamp could not be used on multiple items or documents.  Many of these cancellations were handwritten in ink and included the date and some form of notation for the name of the person or business that paid the tax.  In this ledger, most of the cancellations are handwritten, but there are also several that show no trace of having ever been canceled.  Interestingly, the bank clerks also had an inked stamp made (very much like one that would be used at a post office), ostensibly for the sake of efficiency; which makes it easy to assume that there must have been a very high volume of revenue stamps that required canceling.  It’s puzzling, though, that this mechanical cancellation is only to be found on a handful of the stamps, almost as if the device was frequently misplaced or not always convenient or preferred by the clerks.
 
Revenue stamps, hand-canceled: 'Northern Bank of Kentucky 9/11/66;' page 99.

 

Revenue stamps, Bank Check: both hand-canceled by patrons; page 85.
 
The presence of the revenue stamps in this particular volume is all the more interesting as we have not yet found any other instance of their use in the Bank of North America collection.  It is also curious that the cancellation dates, from August of 1864 to September of 1870, fall short on both ends of the 1862–72 period that the Revenue Act was in effect, and also that stamps were obviously not included with each and every transaction recorded in the ledger.  The explanation may be illuminated by the specifications of the 1862 law, or perhaps in the protocols particular to the B.N.A., but there is much about their inclusion in this ledger that remains a mystery.  Perhaps some of our readers know more or have expertise in this area; if so, we would be delighted if you would contribute in the comments section below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Sugar? Save It...

As you can see from the U.S. Food administration poster from World War I above, the idea of restricting sugar is far from being a new phenomenon.  From wartime rationing campaigns, to anti-slavery economic movements, to modern health anxiety, sugar has been the target of political and social concern throughout U.S. history.  Earlier this year, the World Health Organization generated international buzz on the subject with a draft of new sugar consumption guidelines recommending that the average adult limit their daily sugar consumption to 25 grams (or 6 teaspoons) while mentioning the average can of soda contains nearly twice that amount.  In America, where health statistics typically place average sugar consumption at 22 teaspoons a day for adults and a whopping 32 teaspoons for the children, there’s good cause to be concerned about eating too much sugar given its links to health issues like diabetes and obesity.  To be frank though, the dangers of the sweet substance have been covered so extensively by the news that you’re left thinking: “Sugar? Save it... I’ve heard it all.”  Traveling back to Philadelphia at the turn of the 18th Century through the eyes of Edward Pennington in "Observations on Making Sugar," my exploration of sugar through a historical lense, will highlight how the economic and cultural impacts of sugar are importantly missing from our conversation today.

Given that sugar is so easily available today in its white, purified form, it may surprise you that Philadelphia was a lucrative early American hub of the sugar refining industry.  Just as geography was responsible for the growth of the city in the first place, the accessibility of Philadelphia by water is largely responsible for attracting international sugar trade.  Due to a high likelihood of goods coming into contact with sea water during the trip overseas in wooden ships, sugar producers did not sell a finished, refined product internationally.  The scene below would have been familiar to locals as barrels of unprocessed sugarcane arrived in the port from abroad:

Click on the image above from the Pennsylvania Sugar Refining Company above for a closer view in our Digital Library.

 

“Observations on Making Sugar” is a collection of notes and business letters written by Edward Pennington from roughly 1760-1825 on the best methods of boiling sugar to remove its impurities and in preparation for sale.  Since sugar was arriving in Philadelphia in raw form, there opened up opportunity for businessmen like Pennington to step in as a middleman and add real value to the product by refining it.  Boiling sugar removed sediment which would drop to the bottom of the pan as mud, leaving the sugar whiter and more pure then before.  Pennington has all kinds of notes on the boiling process that emphasize what quality and quantity of water produces the whitest, finest sugar: 

Above, Pennington is explaining the advantage of using more rather the less water to boil sugar: “the loaf sugar will be a great deal whiter for it-- This will please the customers...” (Pennington, 4).

Above, he describes how the finished product sugar should look: “It should be free and strong, the grain sharp as to hurt a little when rub’d hard between the thumb and sugar such as is of a grayish color will make a whiter loaf than that which is of a yellow cast” (Pennington, 4).

 

The cover of "Observations on Making Sugar"

 

The finished product that Pennington sold merchants and customers would have been a loaf or lump of sugar rather then the granulated form of the substance that we are familar with today.  A number of early American cooking records at the Historical Socety of Pennsylvania, such as the cookbook of William Penn’s first wife Gulielma Penn, contain instructions on how to smash and sift sugar for recipes.  Since all the labor of granulating sugar used to be done in the home, it’s no wonder that Americans ate less sugar in the past.  Imagine having to break down sugar every time you wanted to bake with it at home!  

Above are a pair of antique sugar nips that were used to cut lumps of sugar off the loaf that would be smashed and seived for use as needed.

The raw sugar being processed by Philadelphia during Pennington’s lifetime, would have overwhelmingly been produced by slaves in sugar plantations in the Caribbean and West Indies.  Pennington’s ledger for 1799 shows $83,935.20 in purchases of raw sugar from the "Indies," making it unclear where the sugar came from.  Although this phrasing reads as a casual choice of words, there would have been significance to whether the sugar was from the East or West Indies and the choice to not specify where Pennington sourced his sugar might reflect tension over slavery at the time.  In addition to being the home of the “Observations on Making Sugar,” the Historical Society of Pennsylvania also is home to records of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, which was based out of Philadelphia during Pennington’s time.  As the anti-slavery movement gained momentum, institutions like the Pennsylvania Abolition Society economically attacked slavery by refusing to purchase products made by slave labor.  Abolitionists who adopted this economic tactic of opposing slavery would have promoted the use of East India sugar over West India sugar because it was produced by free rather then slave labor.  While the Pennington family was Quaker and many Quakers opposed slavery from a religious viewpoint, a perusal of Edward Pennington’s account does not turn up any explicit discussion of slave labor.  This is curious and raises the question, why does Pennington not overtly address slavery in “Observations on Making Sugar?”

Click on the image above to view this abolitionist booklet "Reasons for Using East India Sugar"in our Digital Library.

After spending just a brief time with Edward Pennington’s 18th Century “Observations on Making Sugar,” you can see that there are plenty of economic, social, and political issues that lie outside the media’s current health-centered conversation about sugar.  While this blog could not possibly address all the complex historical issues that sugar is connected to-- slavery, colonialism, and industrialization are just a few examples-- this piece of food history should inspire us to broaden our view of sugar today.  Though the health anxiety about eating too much sugar is valid, why isn’t there more focus on other important aspects of the sugar industry?  Why don’t we talk about the labor that goes into sugar or how an industrial food system supports excess sugar consumption?  I challenge you to steer conversation about sugar towards economic, social, and political questions the same way you would if you were exploring it like a historical topic!

 


Are you sick of “Sugar is Killing You!” headlines? How would you rather talk about sugar?  Tell me what you think!

Learn more about this series "A Philly Foodie Explores Local History" here.

#HunkyPresidents

Work on the Historic Images, New Technologies (HINT) project continues to progress. After surveying nearly 1,700 political cartoons in HSP's collections (there are still thousands more!), we have selected the 500 or so that will be featured in an online exhibit demonstrating some of the cool new image viewer and annotation tools we're developing as part of this project, and now we're digging into the preliminary research—finding out who the artists were and where and when these cartoons were published. As exciting as this work is, as the summer months stretch on, it can be hard to concentrate—I can't help but daydream about running off to the shore.

Maybe the cartoons are partly to blame. It's clear from some of these cartoons that even distinguished presidents such as Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, and Grover Cleveland had to take a break from politicking at times to work on their  beach bods. As this Currier & Ives lithograph documents, Honest Abe was a regular at his local gym, the Political Gymnasium(TM). Lincoln may have won the presidential election of 1860, but he lost the lesser-known Beefiest Biceps competition of that year to vice presidential candidate (for the Constitutional Union Party) Edward Everett, seen here single-arm-shoulder-pressing his running mate, John Bell, above his head.

The Political Gymnasium

The Political Gymnasium, 1860 (HSP Cartoons and Caricatures collection, #3133)

You don't have to go to the gym to get in a good workout, however. Presidential candidate James A. Garfield took the occasional break from the 1880 campaign trail to clear his thoughts, commune with nature, and tone his upper body by engaging in his favorite pastime: gardening. Programming note: when wielding sharp objects, such as the scythe of Honesty, Ability, and Patriotism, always exercise caution. Be sure to apply sunscreen regularly, and watch out for venomous snakes!

Farmer Garfield: Cutting a Swath to the White House

Farmer Garfield, 1880 (HSP Cartoons and Caricatures collection, #3133)

But when it comes to impressive physiques, there is simply no competing with Grover Cleveland. "Grover Cleveland?" you may ask. "I mean, the man was no Taft, but wasn't he a little...paunchy?" (For context, here are a few of the first Google Image search results for "Grover Cleveland.")

Google Image search results for "Grover Cleveland"

It's like an all-you-can-eat jowl buffet.

Look, Grover Cleveland does not have time to correct your misperceptions about his level of physical fitness. That's because when he's not swinging the Sword of Sound Policy at the Great War Tariff Dragon in the Political Dismal Swamp, he's fighting in the 1880s equivalent of the WWE under the stage name "Siegfried the Fearless." Grover Cleveland is intense. Don't believe me? Let this Joseph Keppler cartoon from Puck magazine speak for itself:

Siegfried the Fearless in the Political "Dismal Swamp"

Siegfried the Fearless in the Political "Dismal Swamp," December 28, 1887 (HSP Cartoons and Caricatures collection, #3133)

If there's a lesson we can learn from these cartoons, it's that exercise is an important aspect of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, but it's also possible to overdo it. If you're putting yourself in mortal danger just so you can look buffer than your political rivals, you might want to rethink your priorities. After all, you don't need to be skinny, or muscle-y, or young, or conform to any culturally-constructed aesthetic ideals in order to go to the beach and have the time of your life. Take it from these anthropomorphic representations of late-19th-century European political movements: everybody else is too busy playing in the sand and the surf to judge you on your looks.

Coney Island and the Crowned Heads

Coney Island and the Crowned Heads, July 18, 1882 (Balch Broadsides: Satirical Cartoons, PG278)

Just wear sunscreen!

 

A Potluck from Martha Washington’s Cookbook

Always looking for relevant and interesting ways to connect with the items in our collections, staff of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania recently cooked our way into the historic kitchen of America's inaugural First Lady.  While few people are able to say that they’ve met the First Lady and even fewer can boast of sampling her cooking first-hand, HSP has unique access to a presidential pantry through Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery, which has been in our collections since 1892.  

For Tara O’Brien, who has revived dozens of dishes from historic cookbooks as Director of Conservation and Preservation, organizing a potluck from Martha Washington’s Cookbook seemed like a fun way to take advantage of this hidden gem by trying and sharing a bunch of historic recipes at once.  Her idea took off and staff began to peruse Mrs. Washington’s recipes, deciphering 17th century cooking instructions, considering ingredients, claiming which dish they would cook, and eventually testing out the first First Lady’s cooking in their own kitchens.  In a refreshing break from the normal Monday grind, co-workers shared their creations in a potluck lunch open to all HSP staff on July 21st.

Below you will find all the dishes from Monday’s potluck.  While there were a couple delicious deviations from the historic recipes-- ahem, I’m looking at you Ron’s Ribs and Not-so-Washington Beer & Cheddar Bread-- the rest of the recipes came straight from Martha Washington’s Cookbook.  The book itself is split into two sections, A Booke of Cookery and A Booke of Sweetmeats (desserts), and the recipes below are listed in their respective categories.

Though it might strike you as merely a novel experiment in the kitchen, the experience of engaging with history through food is of immense value.  Just as your own family recipes allow you to reconnect with your heritage or treasure the memory of loved ones, cooking historic recipes allowed us to form a connection to Martha Washington-- imagining the different cookware, ingredients, surroundings, and company in which the cookbook originated.  As you can see from the potluck photoalbum above, this study of history was far from dull and rather an adventure that produced tangible results.  We came away from the potluck nourished, not only from the historic dishes that literally fed us, but also from the act of eating and sharing our cooking as a community.  After all, half the enjoyment of food is that it brings people together and this is ultimately why cooking historic recipes is such a fulfilling way to engage with history.

Martha Washington’s recipes are outstanding by-the-way; the potluck was a sweet and savory success!


What do you think of cooking historic recipes?  Is it possible to relive history through food and the act of cooking or do you think this is a novel waste of time?  Do you consider family recipes to be historic?  Should teachers use food to teach history? 

Find more about Martha Washington’s original family cookbook and steal a recipe directly from it here.

Learn more about this blog series, A Philly Foodie Explores Local History

George F. Parry's Civil War Diaries: July 1864

Welcome back once again for another round of transcripts from the George F. Parry Civil War diaries (George F. Parry family volumes, Collection 3694). If you're just joining us, in 2012 HSP acquired the diaries of Bucks County resident and Civil War veterinary surgeon George F. Parry. In that collection are three diaries he kept during the Civil War dating from 1863 to 1865, when he served with the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry. In celebration of Parry's work and the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, I'm providing monthly posts on Fondly, PA of transcripts of entries from his diaries.

To see other posts in the series, check out the links over on the right-hand side of this page.  Clicking on the diary images will take you to our Digital Library where you can examine the volumes page by page, along with other digitized items from the Parry collection.

*****

In July 1864 the Atlanta Campaign continued to ravage both Union and Confederate armies. It was also a big month for Parry as he and his regiment faced Confederate forces in several skirmishes in various spots in Georgia. He noted the takeover of Marietta by the Union army at the beginning of the month. By the end of the month, Parry was in Lawrenceville still in the thick of it as his commanding officer had just refused a Confederate order to surrender.


Notes about the transcriptions: I've kept the pattern of Parry's writings as close as formatting here will allow, including his line breaks and spacing. My own additional or clarifying notes will be in brackets [ ]. Any grammatical hiccups that aren’t noted as such are Parry's own.


*****

Sunday, July 3
In a woods between Big Shandy and
the mountains now occupied by the Rebels own
Troops. Moved out at 10 A. M.
marched to the Left of Lost Mt.
by a great number of Rebel works
on into Marietta[,] a quite a place
mosly deserted. Captured a number
of Prisoners[.] Rebels in full retreat
went into camp at ten O'clock after
a Hard days[sic] and a exciting one.

*****

Saturday, July 9
the men then moved on the
Rebels across the River. dis-
Mounted. Reinforced by
G Division of Infantry.
Rossville Groville[?] a very fine|
place but all taken up
by our army. one of the finest
of places.

*****

Thursday, July 14
Marched about four miles South
and Camped
                         Afternoon Capt.
Hilbury and [I?] rode out[,] got
out side of Pickets and then
went in[.] found a Seceshs
Plantation[,] got Potatoes[,] Apples[,]
Chickens[,] tin ware[,] Books & [got?]
Back to Camp by dark.

*****

Monday, July 18
Moved out on Raid with three
Days Rations[.] Marched south
East[,] drove the Rebels fifteen
miles and destroyed five
miles of Atlanta + Macon Rail
Road[.] a very nice day and
Quite an exciting one
                               fell back
Five miles and encamped

*****

Friday, July 22
Marched all night some 30 miles[.]
Halted in the morning one hours for
rest and then proceeded one towards and
arrived at Covenington [Covington, GA][,] captured two
trains of cars[,] Burnt them[,] also des-
troyed one million dolls. worth of cotton[.]
Burnt Depots of cars and tore up
the Rail Road – fells back ten
miles and encamped for a few
hours in a woods - then

*****

        4 mich Cavalry
placed under arrest for capturing Horses
Saturday, July 23
Marched on in a north east
Direction – capturing a great amo-
unt of Horses[,] destroying much
cotton[.] arrived at La[w]renceville at
4 P. M. and encamped for the night[.]
The roads strewed with all kinds of
plunder. Living on the best of the
Land.     La[w]renceville quite a place
captured  a great many horses
and mules.

*****

Thursday, July 28
Up at 1 O'clock and at Day
light moves on the Rebels on
foot[.] fought them some time
Lieut. Brant wounded[,] also 2
Others.  at one time entirely
surrounded.  fell back to
the [illegible] roads and camped[.]
Flag of [illegible] sent in by the Rebels dem-
anding our surrender – Gen'l. [Ganard?]
could not see the point to surrender[.]

*****

A Philly Foodie Explores Local History

The City of the Cheesesteak, Philly history is found in the kitchen. Visitors Services Manager Sarah Duda gets to the meat of the matter, serving up stories from the hidden larder of Philly's unsung hash slingers. Food-related treasures in HSP's library and archive are cooked regularly on the Fondly, PA blog.


 

If I were to ask you to think about Philadelphia history, I suspect that thoughts of Benjamin Franklin, Valley Forge, and the Liberty Bell would start to fill your head as you search for memorable names related to Philadelphia.  While all of these topics are worthy of attention, my historical gaze is rather different and-- dare I say it-- more hungry then most when looking back on the decades that built the city of brotherly love into what it is today.  Since food is such an integral part of life, food history is not merely limited to food products and can also give insight into community, labor, politics, philosophy, and technology surrounding food.  If you are a foodie, a history enthusiast, or interested in hot topics related to food-- sugar, fast food, dieting, organic farming, global-warming, vegetarianism, GMOs, cooking, and food scarcity are just a few that come to mind-- then this is a blog for you.  Over the next two months, I will be exploring local history from a new angle as I uncover some of the hidden food-related treasures within our archives here at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and connect them to food today.

Stop by this Thursday to see history brought to life in food form...

8/27/14
Author: Cary Hutto

Hello all! Thanks for coming back to our blog for more transcriptions from the George F. Parry Civil War diaries (George F. Parry family volumes, Collection 3694). If you're just joining us, in 2012 HSP acquired the diaries of Bucks County resident and Civil War veterinary surgeon George F. Parry. In that collection are three diaries he kept during the Civil War dating from 1863 to 1865, when he served with the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry.

Comments: 0

8/21/14
Author: Sarah Duda

As this blog series, A Philly Foodie Explores Local History, approaches the halfway point in its two-month journey in food history, I think it's about time that we visit one of Philadelphia’s best-known historic food landmarks-- the 9th Street Italian Market!  With early beginnings in the 1880s when Italian immigrants began to settle in a neighborhood South of the original city center, the Philadelphia Italian Market is a collection of specialty food shops and outdoor vendors concentrated around 9th and Christian Streets.  Inspired by historic photographs and local family recipes in our archives here at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, I decided to connect with this historic Philly foodie neighborhood by shopping for fresh ingredients at the Italian Market and cooking a dish from Celeste Morello’s The Philadelphia Italian Market Cookbook: The Tastes of South 9th Street.  Experience the market with me as you read about my multi-layered culinary adventure below and view additional pictures in the photo album to the right!

Comments: 2

8/20/14
Author: Bertha Adams

My task as a volunteer in digital collections is to add metadata to images posted in “Questions of the Week.” As a historian by training, my metadata interests lean toward the descriptive. What was the purpose of this photograph showing the Honorable Raymond Pace Alexander (1898-1974) and his wife Dr. Sadie Tanner Mosell Alexander (1898-1989), flanking business and civic leader Albert M. Greenfield (1887-1967)? While I could not identify the event, I did uncover what was probably one of the earliest associations of Alexander and Greenfield.

Topics : African American
Comments: 0

8/14/14
Author: Sarah Duda

As we were preparing for the HSP Martha Washington Potluck a few weeks ago, Director of Conservation Tara O’Brien and I were brainstorming about what cookware items would have commonly existed in early American kitchens.  When one of our reference librarians, Ron Medford, overheard our conversation, he mentioned that he knew of some old cookware catalogs... in box TQ.40.  Intrigued by Ron’s coincidental knowledge of some forgotten material that might answer our questions, Tara and I immediately went on a hunt for it in our archives.  What we found in mysterious box TQ.40 was a collection hardware, home furnishing, and cookware catalogs and magazines that would make any historian smile because some bit of social and cultural history is waiting to be unpacked on nearly every page.  I am extremely excited to share three items with you: an 1882 merchant catalog from the Lancaster homegoods company Steinman & Co as well as an 1882 magazine and 1977 catalog from the Philadelphia department store Strawbridge & Clothier.  While these catalogs and magazines don't exactly lay out an entire history of American cookware in their pages, an examination of their representations of cookware and cooking reveal historic differences in advertising that stand in stark contrast to modern ads today.  Please reference the photo album in the top right hand corner of this blog post as you read!

Comments: 0

8/12/14
Author: Charissa Schulze
To continue the theme of curiosities or treasures that lie hidden in the pages of the Bank of North America Collection, I am currently performing conservation treatment on a volume that includes several examples of revenue stamps from the years of, and surrounding the American Civil War (1861–1865).  The ledger, dating from January of 1855 to January of 1872, is a book of dividends from the Lexington branch of the Northern Bank of Kentucky (Collection 1543, volume 617).  There are actually a number of ledgers titled after other financial institutions within the collection, and I gleaned
Comments: 0

8/7/14
Author: Sarah Duda

As you can see from the U.S. Food administration poster from World War I above, the idea of restricting sugar is far from being a new phenomenon.  From wartime rationing campaigns, to anti-slavery economic movements, to modern health anxiety, sugar has been the target of political and social concern throughout U.S.

Comments: 2

7/31/14
Author: Sarah Duda

Always looking for relevant and interesting ways to connect with the items in our collections, staff of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania recently cooked our way into the historic kitchen of America's inaugural First Lady.  While few people are able to say that they’ve met the First Lady and even fewer can boast of sampling her cooking first-hand, HSP has unique access to a presidential pantry through Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery, which has been in our collections since 1892.  

Comments: 4

7/30/14
Author: Cary Hutto

Welcome back once again for another round of transcripts from the George F. Parry Civil War diaries (George F. Parry family volumes, Collection 3694). If you're just joining us, in 2012 HSP acquired the diaries of Bucks County resident and Civil War veterinary surgeon George F. Parry. In that collection are three diaries he kept during the Civil War dating from 1863 to 1865, when he served with the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry.

Comments: 0

7/29/14
Author: Sarah Duda

The City of the Cheesesteak, Philly history is found in the kitchen. Visitors Services Manager Sarah Duda gets to the meat of the matter, serving up stories from the hidden larder of Philly's unsung hash slingers. Food-related treasures in HSP's library and archive are cooked regularly on the Fondly, PA

Comments: 0