What does citizenship mean? What are its rights and obligations? Who should be welcomed as a citizen and who excluded? These questions have come to the forefront of the current presidential race, but anxiety and controversy about what citizenship means have been a common refrain in America’s—and Pennsylvania’s—history. This issue of Legacies explores how Pennsylvanians have understood, exercised, and fought for citizenship from the earliest days of the republic to the present day.
Citizenship in the Keystone State
Note from the Editor
Defining Citizenship in the Keystone State
by Rachel Moloshok
Window on the Collections
To Make an American
by Hali Han
Language, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in the Early Republic
by Birte Pfleger
Questions about Citizenship, Then and Now
by Edward W. Johnson
Researching United States Citizenship in Pennsylvania
by Jefferson M. Moak
Legacies for Kids
Mango, Abuela, and Me/Mango, Abuela y yo by Meg Medina, Angela Dominguez
We the People: The Story of Our Constitution by Lynne Cheney, Greg Harlin
Separate is Never Equal: Sylvia Mendez and Her Family's Fight for Desegregation by Duncan Tonatiuh
Friends for Freedom: The Story of Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass by Suzanne Slade, Nicole Tadgell
Blackbird Flyby Erin Entrada Kelly, Betsy Peterschmidt
The Freedom Maze by Delia Sherman
Reviews by Christopher A. Brown
Book and Website Reviews
The Road to Citizenship: What Naturalization Means for Immigrants in the United States by Sofya Aptekar
Tasting Freedom: Octavius Catto and the Battle for Equality in Civil War America by Daniel R. Biddle and Murray Dubin
Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States by Ronald Schmidt Sr.
Undocumented Fears: Immigration and the Politics of Divide and Conquer in Hazleton, Pennsylvania by Jamie Longazel
Preparing for the Oath:U.S. History and Civics for Citizenship
The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
Reviews by Sarah Duda
Food for Thought
The Fifth Way: Journey to Citizenship
by Judith Bernstein-Baker, Esq.
For Further Reading
Alvarez, René Luis. “Assessing the Modern Urban School System: The Institutionalization of Standardized Testing in Philadelphia, 1925-1930.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 128 (2014): 193–220, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5215/pennmaghistbio.138.2.0193.
Aptekar, Sofya. The Road to Citizenship: What Naturalization Means for Immigrants and the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015.
Baer, Friederike. “They ‘Speak Irish but Should Speak German’: Language and Citizenship in Philadelphia’s German Community, c. 1800 to 1820.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 128 (2004): 5–33, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20093677.
Biddle, Daniel R., and Murray Dubin. Tasting Freedom: Octavius Catto and the Battle for Equality in Civil War America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010.
Coates, Ta-Nahisi. Between the World and Me. New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2015.
Cott, Nancy F. “Marriage and Women’s Citizenship in the United States, 1830–1934.” American Historical Review 103 (1998): 1440–74.
Countryman, Matthew. Up South: Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.
Cutler, William W., III. Parents and Schools: The 150-Year Struggle for Control in American Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Davis, William Watts Hart. The Fries Rebellion, 1798-99; An Armed Resistance to the House Tax Law Passed By Congress July 9, 1798, In Bucks and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania. Doylestown, PA, 1899.
Diemer, Andrew. The Politics of Black Citizenship: Free African Americans in the Mid-Atlantic Borderland, 1817–1863. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2016.
Donner, William W. Serious Nonsense: Groundhog Lodges, Versammlinge, and Pennsylvania German Heritage . University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2016.
Ferber, Michael. The Philadelphia Bible Riots of 1844: A Study of Ethnic Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975.
Forten, James. Letters from a Man of Colour, on a Late Bill before the Senate of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1813.
Grubb, Farley. “Educational Choice in the Era Before Free Public Schooling: Evidence from German Immigrant Children in Pennsylvania, 1771–1817.” Journal of Economic History 52 (1992): 363–75
Hirsch, E. D., Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
Johanek, Michael C., and John L. Puckett. Leonard Covello and the Making of Benjamin Franklin High School: Education as if Citizenship Mattered. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.
Kerber, Linda. “The Meanings of Citizenship.” Journal of American History 84 (1997): 833–54.
Kettner, James H. The Development of American Citizenship, 1608–1870. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.
Lemon, James. The Best Poor Man's Country; A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.
Liu, Eric. “What Every American Should Know: Defining Common Cultural Literacy for an Increasingly Diverse Nation.” Atlantic, July 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/07/what-every-american-should-know/397334/.
Longazel, Jamie. Undocumented Fears: Immigration and the Politics of Divide and Conquer in Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016.
Lynskey, Bill. “Reinventing the First Amendment in Wartime Philadelphia.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 131 (2007): 33–80, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20093916.
Malone, Christopher. Between Freedom and Bondage: Race, Party and Voting Rights in the Antebellum North. New York: Routledge, 2007.
McCammon, Holly J. “Explaining Frame Variation: Moderate and More Radical Demands for Women’s Citizenship in the U.S. Women’s Jury Movements.” Social Problems 59 (2012): 43–69.
Miller, Randall M., and William Pencak, eds. Pennsylvania; A History of the Commonwealth. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.
Moss, Hillary J. Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Nash, Gary B. Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia’s Black Community, 1720–1840. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
Newman, Simon, and William Pencak, eds. “Fries’ Rebellion.” Special issue, Pennsylvania History 67 (2000).
Nolt, Steven. Foreigners in Their Own Land: Pennsylvania Germans in the Early Republic. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.
Novak, William J. “The Legal Transformation of Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century America.” In Meg Jacobs, et. al., eds., The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), 85–119.
Oakes, James, “Natural Rights, Citizenship Rights, States’ Rights, and Black Rights: Another Look at Lincoln and Slavery.” In Eric Foner, ed. Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2008), 109–34.
Parker, Kunal M. Making Foreigners: Immigration and Citizenship Law in America, 1600–2000. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Perl-Rosenthal, Nathan. Citizen Sailors: Becoming American in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2015.
Peters, Shawn F. Judging Jehovah’s Witnesses: Religious Persecution and the Dawn of the Rights Revolution. Lawrence, KA: University of Kansas Press, 2000.
Pfleger, Birte. “‘Miserable Germans’ and Fries’s Rebellion: Language, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in the Early Republic.” Early American Studies 2 (2004): 343–61.
Pryce-Jones, David. The Hungarian Revolution. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1969.
Reuben, Julie. “Beyond Politics: Community Civics and the Redefinition of Citizenship in the Progressive Era.” History of Education Quarterly 37 (1997): 399–420.
Ritter, Gretchen. “Gender and Citizenship after the Nineteenth Amendment.” Polity 32 (2000): 345–75.
Schmidt, Ronald, Sr. Language Policy and Identity Politics in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.
Slaughter, Thomas P. Bloody Dawn: The Christiana Riot and Racial Violence in the Antebellum North. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Smith, Eric L. “The End of Black Voting Rights in Pennsylvania: African Americans and the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 1837–1838.” Pennsylvania History 65 (1998): 279–99.
Smith, Rogers M. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in US History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.
Spencer, John P. In the Crossfire: Marcus Foster and the Troubled History of American School Reform. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.
Steffes, Tracy L. School, Society & State: A New Education to Govern Modern America, 1890-1940. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
Symcox, Linda. Whose History? The Struggle for National Standards in American Classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press, 2002.
Tappert, Theodore G. “Helmuth and the Fries Rebellion in 1799.” Lutheran Quarterly 17 (1965): 265–69.
Tomek, Beverly. Pennsylvania Hall: A Legal Lynching in the Shadow of the Liberty Bell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
The Two Trials of John Fries on an Indictment for Treason, Together with a Brief Report of the Trials of Several Other Persons for Treason and Insurrection. Philadelphia, 1800.
Tyack, David B. Seeking Common Ground: Public Schools in a Diverse Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.
———, and Thomas James. “Moral Majorities and the School Curriculum: Historical Perspectives on the Legalization of Virtue.” Teachers College Record 86 (1985): 513–33.
Waldstreicher, David. In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
Westheimer, Joel. What Kind of Citizen? Educating Our Children for the Common Good. New York: Teachers College Press, 2015.
Winch, Julie. A Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
———. “The Making and Meaning of James Forten’s Letters from a Man of Colour.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 64 (2007): 129–38.
Wokeck, Marianne. Trade in Strangers; The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
Wood, Nicholas. “‘A Sacrifice on the Altar of Slavery’: Doughface Politics and Black Disenfranchisement in Pennsylvania, 1837–1838.” Journal of the Early Republic 31 (2011): 75–106.
Zimmerman, Jonathan. “Ethnics Against Ethnicity: European Immigrants and Foreign Language Instruction, 1890-1940.” Journal of American History 88 (2002): 1383–1404.