Answer: The Pennsylvania Turnpike
In 1796, the nation received its first long distance, surfaced highway, the Lancaster Turnpike, which stretched between Philadelphia and Lancaster. In the 1800s, this route underwent a number of changes, including being converted in a canal and then further converted into a railway. The railroad project, however, was not seen through, even though a decent portion of the rail and tunneling work had been completed to lengthen the old turnpike towards Pittsburg. The road was eventually abandoned.
It wasn't until Franklin Roosevelt's presidency in the 1930s that serious talks arose about reinstituting an interstate highway across Pennsylvania. Thanks in part to funding from the Works Progress Administration (later the Work Project Administration), the state was able to finish the western part of what became known as the Pennsylvania Turnpike. This roadway officially opened to motorists on October 1, 1940.
HSP has a number of small collections that document the Pennsylvania Turnpike and other historic Pennsylvania roadways, such as the Germantown and Perkiomen Turnpike Company papers (Am .246) and Ridge Turnpike Company accounts (Amb .576). HSP also holds a number of publications on the history of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.